Download Citation on ResearchGate | Culturas híbridas: estrategias para entrar y salir de la modernidad / Néstor García Canclini | Incluye bibliografía e índice }. Culturas Hibridas by Nestor Garcia Canclini. ( ratings). Paperback Book, pages. Description: The essays in this book address the latest topics and. How do we speak of modernity?’ That is the question that García Canclini asks at the beginning of his book, Culturas Híbridas: estrategias’para entrar y salir de.
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How do we speak of modernity? How do we study modernity? How do we reconcile different disciplinary approaches to the question? What is distinctive about Latin America now. What does a television producer or a market researcher understand by the popular?
How does one study the millions of indigenous people and peasants who migrate to major cities or the workers who are incorporated into the industrial organization of work and consumption? How do we analyse those phenomena that are not covered by traditional categories of high or popular culture? Finally the big question: Perhaps the central theme of cultural policies today is how to build societies with democratic projects shared by everybody without making everyone the same, societies in which dispersal is transformed into diversity and the inequalities between classes, ethnic and other groups are reduced to differences’.
And not only must he make notes but he must also make sense: His Culturas populares en el capitalismo was a real breakthrough in that it described artisan production and fiestas not as survivals or degenerate remnants of a once authentic culture but as immensely variable relations to the market, to national culture and to local history.
The book found a way out of the false dichotomies of tradition or modernity, artisan products or art. The very idea of ‘modernity 7 expressed in the title seems awkward. Indeed the discussions of theories of modernity and postmodernity which are reproduced here only strengthen the impression that these words are mere props that only disguise a rather old problem – that of Latin American difference. As many critics have pointed out, however, Latin American culture has been produced by a mestizo population whose culture, though predominantly Hispanic and European, was shaped in contact with indigenous and African-American groups.
Whether this adds up to a more democratic culture is another matter, given that ‘there is still inequality in the appropriation of symbolic goods and in access to cultural innovation’. The industrial analogy is not intended to be frivolous. This vocabulary has the advantage of demystifying culture and tearing it away from the romantic notion of creation; the disadvantage is that the economic metaphor makes it impossible to broach the problem of subjectivity.
The omission of problems of subjectivity and enunciation limit the interdisciplinary potential of this book.
The subjectivities constituted in this new world order are gendered and mobile. By gender I do not mean women or making space for women. Gender is not a woman’s problem but an essential category of analysis. Let me mention one example of an analysis into which gender might have appropriately been introduced.
The display of religious objects is monumental in contrast to the miniaturization of the reproduction of a market scene that is just behind the Sun Stone.
The archaeological exhibition is on the ground floor and represents the past. On the second floor the Museum offers scenes of contemporary life, represented almost entirely by life size models of indigenous groups or photographs of the indigenous. Not only are indigenous hbiridas made to seem ‘the axis of national culture’ but they are also represented as traditional. This representation of the national patrimony over-looks the hybrid forms assumed by traditional ethnic groups ccanclini they come into contact with capitalist socioeconomic and cultural development’.
nestor garcia canclini – Culturas Híbridas (inglés) _Franco
Thus for instance Bal’s semiotic study hibridad out that the nineteenth century statue of Queen Maya giving birth to the Buddha from her side, marks a transition between the exhibition of animals to that of foreign humans. I cannot go into the details of her analysis.
Cultursa me simply quote the sentence that concludes her discussion of this statue: Clearly the imperial thrust of the Natural History Museum is not to be equated with the national narrative of the Anthropological Museum although the articulation of gender in the narrative is equally important.
This is evident from a photograph of the interior of the ethnology room of the Museum which shows a group of life-size figures representing an indigenous family One of the women, dressed in a huipil and a long skirt, kneels in the foreground, apparently tending an open fire. Beside her are two baskets filled with what looks like the leaves used for making tamales the details of the photograph are not clear.
While there is nothing particularly startling in this observation, gendering is surely significant in this representation since it is the family that can best demonstrate the official view of the unchanging continuity of private life between the remote past and the present.
Introducing gender into a discussion of the national patrimony might also have hibrldas to the question of how male and female have been significantly recoded by the media and private enterprise.
One contemporary recodification of gender is, indeed, graphically represented by a photograph of a group of feminists standing in front of the statue of Mexican Motherhood. But the scene surely also illustrates the breakdown of the old categories of public and private.
The nation publicly sanctified motherhood; the women’s movement is now forced to make public what the placid face of motherhood conceals – the death toll of illegal abortions which is often the only form of contraception available to poo’r women.
When one looks at this cuturas, it is precisely the difference between Woman and women that is on display, the public sanctification of formally private life which feminists have made a matter of public debate, emphasizing that abortion is not only a ‘woman’s question’. The trouble with the old term mestizaje was that it suggested that culture sprang naturally out of copulation.
Criticas y reseñas
Hybridity is a botanical metaphor closely linked therefore to the notion of culture as cultivation, but it has some of the same problems as mestizaje. What then is the stake in ‘hybridity’? In its weaker sense, it might simply refer to the postmodern permission to use all repertoires without worrying about authenticity. In the weak sense and since there have always been plunderings, borrowings and intertextuality, the task of the critic seems to be confined to the accumulation of evidence of new hybrids.
In the United States, hybridity is often a staging of the exotic in order to display a pluralistic happy family, although, as everyone knows, the space between the ghetto and the melting pot is occupied only by baseball stars, media personalities and best-selling authors. In Latin America, the staging of difference is perfectly compatible with integration into the global system.
Culturas hibridas – Nestor Garcia Canclini. Entrada. by marvin code on Prezi
Hybridity-as-difference is too indiscriminate to ac-count for both the vernaculars of global culture and the anomalies that truly cause dissent within the happy family. But it is only the latter that undo the power of the centre. Hence the significance of a question posed by Nelly Richard: For further discussion of monumentalism, see Susan Stewart: Narratives of the Miniature, hibriidas Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection.
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